Why are we here? Where did we come from? The answer generally given was that humans were of comparatively recent origin, because it must have been obvious, even at early times, that the human race was improving in knowledge and technology. So it can’t have been around that long, or it would have progressed even more.

## Sowing the Seeds of Hope

In her speech, *Sowing the Seeds of Hope*, Dr. Goodall, will bring her audience into the world of the Gombe chimpanzees―from her early observations and experiences to the latest news and stories from the field.

Dr. Goodall will also share information about the work of the Jane Goodall Institute, which continues her pioneering research and celebrates its 35^{th} anniversary in 2012. Today, the Institute is a global leader in the effort to protect chimpanzees and their habitats. It also is widely recognized for establishing innovative community-centered conservation and development programs in Africa, and Jane Goodall’s Roots & Shoots, the Institute’s global environmental and humanitarian youth program.

In *Sowing the Seeds of Hope*, Dr. Goodall will provide insight into the person behind the globe-trotting international icon: a UN Messenger of Peace, Dame of the British Empire, and the subject of countless articles and television programs around the world. She will also discuss the current threats facing the planet and her reasons for hope in these complex times, encouraging everyone in the audience to do their part to make a positive difference each and every day.

## Mathematical Literacy Panel

Held early each January in partnership with the American Mathematical Society, the Joint Mathematics Meetings is the largest annual mathematics meeting in the world — attendance in 2012 was a record-breaking 7200! The program provides plentiful opportunities to engage with your fellow mathematicians and learn about innovative research in your interest areas, including numerous invited addresses, minicourses, short courses, panel sessions, workshops, paper sessions, posters, exhibits, and more.

## The Pythagorean Theorem: What I Really Meant.

In mathematics, the **Pythagorean theorem** — or **Pythagoras’ theorem** — is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle (*right-angled triangle*). In terms of areas, it states:

In any right-angled triangle, the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two legs (the two sides that meet at a right angle).

The theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides *a*, *b* and *c*, often called the *Pythagorean equation*:^{[1]}

where *c* represents the length of the hypotenuse, and *a* and *b* represent the lengths of the other two sides.

The Pythagorean theorem is named after the Greek mathematician Pythagoras (*ca.* 570 BC—*ca.* 495 BC), who by tradition is credited with its discovery and proof,^{[2]}^{[3]} although it is often argued that knowledge of the theorem predates him. There is evidence that Babylonian mathematicians understood the formula, although there is little surviving evidence that they used it in a mathematical framework.^{[4]}^{[5]}

The theorem has numerous proofs, possibly the most of any mathematical theorem. These are very diverse, including both geometric proofs and algebraic proofs, with some dating back thousands of years. The theorem can be generalized in various ways, including higher-dimensional spaces, to spaces that are not Euclidean, to objects that are not right triangles, and indeed, to objects that are not triangles at all, but *n*-dimensional solids. The Pythagorean theorem has attracted interest outside mathematics as a symbol of mathematical abstruseness, mystique, or intellectual power; popular references in literature, plays, musicals, songs, stamps and cartoons abound.

## Back in the Day: Notes on Science Before the Scientific Revolution

The science of the middle ages was significant in establishing a base for modern science. The Marxist historian and scientist J. D. Bernal^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]} asserted that “the renaissance enabled a scientific revolution which let scholars look at the world in a different light. Religion, superstition, and fear were replaced by reason and knowledge”.^{[12]} James Hannam says that, while most historians do think something revolutionary happened at this time, that “the term ‘scientific revolution’ is another one of those prejudicial historical labels that explain nothing. You could call any century from the twelfth to the twentieth a revolution in science” and that the concept “does nothing more than reinforce the error that before Copernicus nothing of any significance to science took place”.^{[13]} Despite some challenges to religious views, however, many notable figures of the scientific revolution—including Nicolaus Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei,Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz—remained devout in their faith.^{[14]}

## Tribute to Ada

**Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace** (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born **Augusta Ada Byron** and now commonly known as**Ada Lovelace**, was an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage‘s early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognized as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine. Because of this, she is often considered the world’s first computer programmer.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}

She was born 10 December 1815 as the only legitimate child to the poet Lord Byron and his wife Anne Isabella Byron – all of his other children were born out of wedlock.^{[4]} Byron separated from his wife a month after Ada was born and left England forever four months later, eventually dying of disease in theGreek War of Independence when Ada was only eight years old. Ada’s mother remained bitter at Lord Byron and promoted Ada’s interest inmathematics and logic in an effort to prevent her from developing what she saw as insanity in her father, but she remained interested in him despite this (and was, upon her eventual death, buried next to him at her request).

She referred to herself as a “poetical scientist” and “an Analyst (& Metaphysician)”.^{[4]}^{[5]}