The science of the middle ages was significant in establishing a base for modern science. The Marxist historian and scientist J. D. Bernal asserted that “the renaissance enabled a scientific revolution which let scholars look at the world in a different light. Religion, superstition, and fear were replaced by reason and knowledge”. James Hannam says that, while most historians do think something revolutionary happened at this time, that “the term ‘scientific revolution’ is another one of those prejudicial historical labels that explain nothing. You could call any century from the twelfth to the twentieth a revolution in science” and that the concept “does nothing more than reinforce the error that before Copernicus nothing of any significance to science took place”. Despite some challenges to religious views, however, many notable figures of the scientific revolution—including Nicolaus Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei,Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz—remained devout in their faith.